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Model Bankable Projects



Fish Diagnostic Lab


Fisheries have been advocated as one of the ancient professions in India. Fish capturing is one of the oldest methods for securing food for survival. With technological advancements and development of modern methods for fish capturing, the profession has transformed into commercial from traditional vocation. However, due to limitations of capture fisheries such as over exploitation, pollution, common resource management problems the fisheries has shifted its attention towards the culture of the fish varieties by manipulation of the natural conditions for its growth. This science of culture of living organism in aquatic environment is called Aquaculture, which includes culture of not only the fishes but also of the crustaceans, molluscs, plants and other organism. Since culture of the organism need manipulation and intervention in the growth through breeding, selection and stocking in controlled environment, special feeding and manipulation in the other environmental conditions, it leads to critical situations.

Aquaculture has been commercialized through the successful adoption of Fish culture in the fresh waters and Shrimp culture in the brackish waters. However, unplanned growth of shrimp farms in certain areas, non adoption of pollution control measures, uncontrolled heavy stocking and feeding for higher production and returns have resulted in the occurrence of viral diseases thus affecting the production and even complete mortality in the farms. This has led to closure of a number of farms, litigation and intervention by the Supreme Court, regulating the sector by imposing certain restrictions. This compelled entrepreneurs to adopt suitable precautionary measures such as disease identification and cures in shrimp farming. Aquaculture diagnostic laboratory will assist in identification of disease to avoid stocking of diseased seed for farming.

Type of Diseases

The common virus causing diseases in the shrimps are Monodon Baculo Virus ( MBV ), Yellow Head Virus ( YHV ), White Spot Virus Disease (WSD) or Systemic Ectodermal and Mesodermal Baculovirus (SEMBV ), Hepatopancreatic Parvo-like Virus ( HPV ), Infectious Hypodermal and haematopoietic Necrosis Virus ( IHHNV ). The most common viral disease prevalent in India is the WSD, which is mainly responsible for the mass mortality of the shrimps. This virus is known to transmit through water and seed. Transmission through water can be controlled effectively by disinfection with chlorination but to prevent the disease from spreading through seed, it is essential to screen them for SEMBV virus before stocking. Stocking of virus free seed would help to prevent the WSD. There are generally three stages of infection namely the Latent, Transition and Patent stage. The shrimp in Latent stage are apparently healthy, active and do not have any white spots. The shrimp in Transition stage are active and may have very tiny white spots but there may not be any mortality. The shrimp in the Patent stage are weak, refuse feed, have prominent white spots and tend to come to pond margins and die. Besides this, hatcheries have to screen the brood stock, nauplii and post larvae so as to produce healthy and specific pathogen free stock (SPF).

Scope of Aquaculture Disease Diagnostic Laboratories

With the stagnation in Marine capture Fisheries and with commercialization of various aquaculture technologies especially shrimp farming and the problems faced by shrimp industry due to diseases, the farmers have realized the need for better management practices such as procurement of certified shrimp seeds from the hatcheries so that the losses suffered due to diseases could be avoided or reduced. This has resulted in establishment of aquaculture diagnostic laboratories either in the hatcheries itself or independently for certifying the seed before purchase. Marine Products Export Development Authority also has established few such laboratories and has come out with a subsidy-linked scheme for establishing such laboratory in the private hatcheries. These laboratories can have facilities for certifying the seed as also to provide consultancy in control of the diseases combined with soil and water tests, and related works. This scheme would generate employment for the Fisheries Graduates as stipulated in the recently launched Agri-Business and Agri-Clinic scheme of Government of India.

Technical Parameters

The technical Parameters for PCR test and Soil & water analysis have been indicated in Annexure I.

Eligible Borrowers

The borrowers should be technically qualified basically Fisheries Graduates with B.F.Sc degree or graduates in Micro- biology with a short term training in shrimp culture to enable him/her to effectively provide consultancy in disease diagnosis and treatment. Others Agriculture / Veterinary Graduates with required training can also be eligible for establishment of such laboratories.

Margin Money and Bank loan

The entrepreneur is expected to provide 25% of the project cost as margin money from his own resources and the balance 75% would be available from the banks as credit. However, under the recently announced scheme by GOI for Agriculture Graduates, the margin money expected from the borrower would be 5% for special category viz. SC / ST., women and beneficiaries from NE states and Hilly / Tribal areas and 10% from others. A maximum of 50% of the margin prescribed by banks, to meet the shortfall in borrower's contribution, if any, where the bank is satisfied that the prospective borrower is unable to meet the margin money requirements, could be given by NABARD from its "Soft Loan Assistance Fund". Such assistance / loans to banks will be without any interest but the banks may charge a service charge of 3% p.a. from the beneficiary (Ref.No.NB.DPD-FS /H-429/ACABC.POL/2001-02 Circular No.DPD-FS/12/ 2001-02 Dated 23 July 2001 ).


Financial Outlay

The financial analysis has been worked out considering 100% of the capital expenditure on the establishment of the laboratory and 50% of the first year's operational cost except the rent of the building which is considered for 12 months. The financial outlay and bank loan works out as follows:

Financial Outlay                    Rs : 9.360 lakh

Margin Money ( 25% )         Rs : 2.340 lakh

Bank Loan                           Rs : 7.020 lakh

Interest rate for ultimate borrowers

Banks are free to decide the rate of interest within the overall RBI guidelines. However, for working out the financial viability and bankability of the model project we have assumed the rate of interest as 12% per annum.

Interest rate for refinance from NABARD

As per the circulars of NABARD issued from time to time

Financial Viability

The financial viability of the unit is based on the assumption that a minimum of 1000 samples would be tested both for PCR test and water analysis and 500 samples for soil analysis each year, which has been shown in annexure -V. The financial parameters are indicated below :

a) NPW @ 15% DF = Rs.4.495 lakh

b) BCR @ 15% DF = 1.2 : 1

c) IRR                         58 %

Repayment Period

The repayment of loan is possible in six years without any grace period as income generation starts in the first year itself as shown in annexure V.


Banks may take a decision as per RBI guidelines.

Annexure I

Technical Parameters for PCR test, Soil and Water Analysis

1. Technical Parameters for PCR test

The process of diagnosing diseases in the shrimp seeds uses a process known as Polymerase Chain Reaction ( PCR ). The PCR test accurately identifies virus-infected seed. The process involves

(i) Collection of samples, preservation and processing for histopathology and PCR amplification. (ii) Total Nucleic acid extraction from samples collected.

(iii) Extraction of DNA and RNA from samples obtained from suspected shrimp and visualization of the extracted fraction through agarose gel electophoresis.


A sample is taken from about 75 to 150 shrimp seeds and digestion buffer is added to it. The sample is crushed and put into micro lids and incubated for 30 minutes at room temperature. It is then centrifuged at 5000 rpm for 5 minutes and the supernatant of 500 micro liters is taken to which the precipitation buffer of 500 micro liters is added. The solution is centrifuged for 20 minutes at 14000 rpm. The supernatant is discarded and the residue is taken to which 500 micro liters of washing buffer is added. This solution is centrifuged for 10 minutes at 14000 rpm. Again the supernatant is discarded and the remains are dried on laminar flow for 5 minutes. To this 150 liters of distilled water is added to dissolve it uniformly. Primers are added to positive control, negative control and samples. The samples are kept in thermocyler after which, the liquid is poured into the wells on a gel in electrophoretic unit. The bands are then compared under UV trans illuminator for detection of the viruses. The process has been indicated in a flow chart in annexure II.

2. Soil and Water Analysis

There are number of parameters that need to be analyzed before establishing a farm. During the farming also, regular monitoring of the water and soil parameters is necessary in order to take the full benefit of the nutrients available in the soil as also in the water. Important parameters that need to be evaluated in the soil and water are

  • Ammonia
  • Nitrate
  • Nitrite
  • Phosphate
  • Salinity
  • Alkalinity
  • Chlorides
  • Dissolved Oxygen
  • pH
  • Water Retention etc.

Different tests are required to be done to analyze the above parameters, based on which necessary action can be initiated to provide correct dose of fertilizers and supplementary feed. It may not be possible for every farmer to have facility for undertaking all these tests, therefore such facility which was hitherto available through State Departments free of cost can be provided through these laboratories.


Annexure - II


DNA Extraction ( Take 30 number of Larvae in filter cloth )


800 ml of Digestion Buffer ( 200 x 4 ) ( Buffer 1 )


Keep in Room temperature for 30 minutes


Transfer to 1.5 ml Centrifuge Tube


Centrifuge at 5000 rpm for 5 mnts.


Take 500 micro litres of Supernatant to Fresh Tube


Add 500 micro litres of DNA precipitation Buffer ( B-2 )


Again Centrifuge at 14000 rpm for 20 mnts.


Take the Pellet


Add 500 micro litres of DNA Washing Buffer ( B-3 )


Centrifuge at 14000 rpm for 10 mnts.


Take the Pellet


Dry for 5 mnts on Tissue Paper


Add 100 micro litres of Dry Wt. (Injection water)


PCR Test ( 1st Step )


Take Master Mix Tubes


Add 100 micro litres of Dry Wt. ( Injection Water )


Sample - 1 Positive Negative


Centrifuge for a Short Time ( 1 mnt ) at 5000 rpm


Add 2 micro litres of Primer 1&2 to all


Add 2 micro litres of sample + 2 micro litres of Positive and 2 micro litres of Negative


Switch on PCR Machine for One and Half Hours


Keep in Deep Freeze


Second Step


Sample from PCR Positive Negative


Follow above steps till PCR machine


Prepare Gel Bed. One for Positive One for Negative and Two for Samples


Compare Sample Bands on Ultra Violet Lamp with Positive and Negative


Annexure - III

Indicative Financial Outlay for establishment of Aquaculture Disease Diagnostic Laboratory

A- Capital Cost:

S.No Items Amount in Rs.
1 Thermo Cycler - PCR Machine 150000
2 Ultra Violet Trans illuminator 70000
3 Gel Electrophoresis Unit 12000
4 Cyclomixer - Vortex mixer 7000
5 Micro Centrifuge 20000
6 Deep Freezer 20000
7 Microwave Oven 15000
8 Laminar Flow Chamber 40000
9 Autoclave 4000
10 Microscope 30000
11 PH meter 15000
12 Micro pipettes and other glass wares 20000
13 Electronic Balance 30000
14 Water Bath 4000
15 Air Conditioner 30000
16 UPS 35000
17 Gas Connection and Stove 3000
18 Furniture 25000
19 Heat scaling Machine 1500
20 Gel Rocker 11000
21 Refrigerator 15000
22 Micro Centrifuge 20000
23 Equipment for Water and Soil Analysis 50000
24 Misc. 22500
  Total 650000

B- Operational Expenses

S.No Items Amount in Rs
1 Rent of the Building 12000
2 Primer for 1000 samples 350000
3 Other Operating expenses 60000
4 Salary - PCR Technician ( 1 ) 60000
5 Lab Assistants ( 2 ) 60000
6 Misc. 18000
  Total 560000

C - Income -

S.No Items Amount in Rs
1 Screening Charge per Sample 800
2 Number of Samples per Year 1000 ( 500 samples in first year )  
3 Total Income 800 x 1000 800000
4 Soil and Water Analysis per sample (500 samples of soil and 1000 samples for water) Rs 50/- each
5 Income from Soil and Water analysis 75000
  Total Income ( 3 +5 ) 875000

Annexure IV

Indicative Financial Analysis of Aquaculture Diagnostic Laboratory

(Amount in Rs)                                   

Particulars / Years 1 2 3 4 5 6
Capital Cost 650000          
Recurring Cost* 286000 560000 560000 560000 560000 560000
Total 936000 560000 560000 560000 560000 560000
Income 450000 875000 875000 875000 875000 875000
Net Income -486000 315000 315000 315000 315000 315000
NPV Cost @ 15% 2446267          
NPV Benefits @ 15% 2941857          
NPW 495590          
BCR 1.2 : 1          
IRR 58%          

* 50% of the operational cost and rent of the building for one year is capitalised.

    Annexure V

    Indicative Statement showing repayment of Principal and Interest

    Total Financial Out Lay     Rs 9.360 lakh

    Margin                                 Rs 2.340 lakh

    Bank Loan                          Rs 7.020 lakh

    (Rs. lakh)                                    

    Year Bank Loan Outs
    at the beginning
    of the Year
    Net Income   Repay
      Bank loan Outst
    at the end
    of the Year
    Net Surplus
    Interest @ 12% Principal Total
    1 7.020 4.500 0.842   0.842 7.020 3.658
    2 7.020 3.150 0.842 1.160 2.002 5.860 1.148
    3 5.815 3.150 0.703 1.160 1.863 4.700 1.287
    4 4.655 3.150 0.564 1.160 1.724 3.540 1.426
    5 3.495 3.150 0.425 1.160 1.585 2.380 1.565
    6 2.335 3.150 0.286 1.160 1.446 1.220 1.704
    7 1.175 3.150 0.146 1.220 1.366 - 1.784
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