Because of huge gap between supply and demand of
shrimps in local as well as international market, there
may not be any problem in marketing the same. Shrimps
can either be sold directly by the farmers in the market
or sold to exporters for processing before export.
Shrimps can be exported in frozen form with head on ,
head less, battered and breaded, or IQF products or any
other form with value addition. The prawn has to be
packed as per requirements of importing countries and
therefore this should be decided after a detailed market
survey. It is always advisable to get in touch with
local distributing agents of the customer country.
Hygienic packaging, display and appearance of the packet
are key factors to attract consumers of importing
11. Rate of
As per existing RBI guidelines interest rate to be
charged to the ultimate borrower for loan exceeding Rs.2
lakhs will be as decided by the lending Bank. NABARD's
interest rate for refinance would be as per existing
norms prevailing at the particular time.
As can be seen from Annexure No.IV the borrower will
be able to repay the bank loan in 5 years with a
moratorium of one year on repayment of principal.
Security from the ultimate beneficiaries has to be
obtained as per the rules of financing banks which have
to be in conformity with the guidelines of RBI.
As shrimps have got good export potential,
establishment of shrimp farms as per the model scheme
indicated above is recommended for consideration by
banks for financing.
Technical Parameters for establishing a
extensive shrimp farm
A -1. Design and Construction of shrimp
An extensive shrimp farm should be of the size 0.4 -
0.5 ha. and preferably drainable from the management
point of view. The ponds generally should have concrete
dikes, elevated concrete supply canal with separate
drain gates and adequate life supporting devices like
generators and aerators.
The design, elevation and orientation of the water
canals must be related to the elevation of the area with
particular reference to the mean range of tidal
fluctuation. The layout of the canals and dikes may be
fitted as closely as technically possible to existing
land slopes and undulation for minimizing the cost of
2. General Earth Work
It is normally carried out in the following order :
1. Site clearing
2. Top soil stripping
3. Staking of centre lines and templates
4. Preparation of dike foundation
5. Excavation of drainage canals
6. Construction of dikes (peripheral and secondary)
7. Forming and compaction of dikes.
8. Excavation of pits for gates.
9. Levelling of pond bottom.
10. Construction of gates and refilling of pits
11. Construction of dike protection.
The top soil may be set aside and should again be
spread later to preserve pond bottom fertility.
3. The essential components of a shrimp farm
2. Water intake structure
3. Store room for feed and equipments
4. An area for cleaning of the harvest
5. A workshop and pump house
6. Watch and ward room , office and a mini
From the management point of view it is better to go
in for ponds of 0.4 ha-0.5 ha size. These ponds should
be preferably completely drainable. The ponds are
partitioned by secondary dykes. In order to render over
all protection to the cultured stock and all related
structures a perimeter dyke also can be constructed.
The height of the perimeter dyke will depend upon the
following factors, such as :
1. Height of water level in the area.
2. Elevation above mean sea level.
3. Height of free board.
4. The percentage allowance for soil shrinkage.
The partition dykes determine the size and limit of
each grow out pond and its height is determined by the
following factors namely :
1. The height of water column in the pond
2. Free board
3. Wave action
4. Shrinkage factor
The shrinkage factor is decided by the type of soil
like heavy, medium and light soils.
They regulate the inflow and outflow of water into
the pond and also are responsible for maintaining the
desired water column in the pond. The main gates are
constructed on the perimeter dyke and are usually
located on the partition dykes and they regulate the
water column in the individual ponds. It can be made out
of concrete or PVC or Asbestos piping.
D. Drain canals
They are generally trapezoidal in cross section and
its discharge capability is decided by area of cross
section and velocity of water flow.
E. Pond preparation
Proper pond preparation will ensure higher
production. The main objectives of pond preparation are
1. To eradicate weed fishes and orgnaisms
2. To remove abnoxious gases
3. To improve the natural productivity of the pond
4. To maintain high water quality for proper growth
and higher survival percentage.
Eradication of unwanted organisms is usually carried
out by draining out the entire water and drying the pond
bottom till it cracks. This also helps in removal of
obnoxious gases and oxygenation of the pond bottom. It
also improves the fertility of the soil.
Liming is done for correcting the pH and to kill
pathogenic bacteria and virus. In undrainable ponds
mahual oil should be applied @ 200 ppm to eradicate the
weed fishes. After around two weeks time organic and
inforanic fertilisers are applied to enrich the soil and
water. Once the thick lab-lab is formed the water level
is raised and the pond is made ready for stocking.
F. Selective stocking :
The most suitable species for culture in India are
the Indian white prawn Penaeus indicus and tiger prawn
P. Monodon. The stocking density varies with the type of
system adopted and the species selected for the culture.
As per the directives of Supreme Court only traditional
and improved traditional shrimp farming can be
undertaken within the CRZ with a production range of 1
to 1.5 tonnes/ha/crop with stocking density of 40,000 to
60,000/ha/crop. Outside CRZ extensive shrimp farming
with a production range of 2.5 to 3 tonnes/ha/crop with
stocking density of 1,00,000/ha/crop may be allowed.
In order to have uniform growth of the cultured
animal it is always advisable to go in for hatchery