Soil and Climate


Temperature Temperature means the withstanding capacity of the plant to both cold and heat conditions. For banana the ideal temperature range is between 20 and 35 degree Celsius. When the temperature goes below 20 degree Celsius, there will be more vegetative growth. As a consequence, bunch emergence and fruit development will get arrested. And the fruit will show reddish brown discolouration on the under surface of the peel. Similarly, when the temperature goes above 35 degree Celsius, the visible symptoms will be ripening of green fruits and mixed ripening. The shelf life of such fruits will also get reduced.
Light Light is more related with photosynthesis. Through photosynthesis the plant prepares its food. Therefore, more light means more chance for preparation of food. But there is a limit for everything. The limit is 10-14 hours of daylight. If the light intensity is very high, chance for bleaching of leaves is also very high. On the contrary, a low light intensity retards the growth. However, a slight shade is not found as a factor that reduces the yield.
Rainfall Rain adds water to the soil, which the plant absorbs. So how much water is needed? A healthy plant needs somewhere around 25 mm of water per week. To supply this much quantity of water a rainfall of around 200-250 cm that is distributed evenly is needed. And if the required water is not added to the soil either through rain or irrigation, the plant show visible signs of drought.
Wind Wind is an important determinant in banana production. Strong wing with a velocity over 50 Km/hour can even cause toppling of the plant. Similarly, when the wind velocity is between 15-25 Km/hour, longitudinal splitting of leaf lamina will result. And when such strips are of less than 10 cm, the photosynthetic efficiency will be greatly affected. The final result will be yield reduction. Therefore, planting of windbreaks and providing proper propping materials is a must in windy tracks.
Altitude Altitude means the height up to which banana can be grown. Researchers have found that banana can be grown up to an altitude of 1500 meters from sea level. And at higher altitudes, the duration is found to be over 14 months.


Bose, T.K., Mithra, S.K., Sanyal, D. (1996) Fruits: Tropical and Sub-Tropical, Naya Udyog Publications, Calcutta.