|Germination bed (primary)||
Seeds are sown in raised seed beds (15
cm above the ground level) provided with proper drainage prepared
out of soil, compost and sand at 6:2:1 proportion. A bed of 4 x 3 m
will be sufficient for 1.5 kg of seeds, if sown 1.0 to 1.5 cm apart
in rows, with the flat side of the seed towards the soil. A thin
layer of soil is spread after sowing and covered with dry straw to a
thickness of about 5 cm to ensure uniform temperature and to
regulate moisture retention.
Sowing is to be taken up in December-January for arabica and in February-March for Robusta. Watering of the seed beds is to be done twice a day in the initial week and thereafter regulated. The seeds sprout in about 40 days when the straw mulch is removed. The primary beds are provided with pandal covered with coir mats or dry leaves.
|Polybag (basket) nursery||
Seedlings from germination beds are
transplanted to polythene bags in Feb-March when they are at the
'button' stage. Polythene bags of 23 cm x 15 cm and 150 gauge
thickness with adequate number of holes of 3 mm in the bottom half
of the bag are preferred. The bags are filled with prepared mixture
of 6 parts of sieved jungle soil, 2 parts of well rotten sieved
cattle manure and 1 part of fine sand.
The prepared mixture is
thoroughly mixed and slightly moistened with water to facilitate
packing. The soil is filled into the nursery baskets and pressed
firm. Nursery baskets are arranged conveniently in rows of 10 within
a rectangular frame with bamboo reapers. These frames are held in
positions with bamboo or wooden props driven into the ground at
taproot and the feeder roots should be so disposed as to enable the
plant to strike roots and make firm growth as quickly as possible.
The shoot portion of the transplanted seedling should be at the same
height above soil level as it was in the germination bed.
Transplanting is done preferably in the early morning hours or late
in the afternoon. Seedlings uprooted from the primary bed should not
be stored for a long time but transplanted immediately.
|Aftercare of seedlings||
Seedlings are to be manured once in
two months with urea dissolved in water or supernatant solution of
fermented cowdung slurry. For an area of 1 m2, 20 g urea
dissolved in 4.5 litres water is sufficient. Adequate protection is
given against nursery diseases and pests.
Overhead shade in the nursery has to be thinned and finally removed after the onset of monsoon (this is not applicable to northeastern areas). The seedlings grow vigorously if watered judiciously and protected against afternoon sun.
|References||Kerala Agricultural University. 2011. Package of Practices Recommendations: Crops. 14th edition. Kerala Agricultural University, Thrissur- 360 p.|