Preparation of Field for Planting
Primary tillage is the first working after the last harvest and normally the
most aggressive tillage operation. It is normally undertaken when the soil
is wet enough to allow the field to be ploughed and strong enough to give
reasonable levels of traction. This can be immediately after the crop
harvest or at the beginning of the next wet season.
The next step is preparation of a good seed bed for sowing. For the purpose the water is allowed to enter and remain in the field for one to two week. This will result in the germination of weed seeds. The weeds thus germinated are incorporated into the soil by harrowing. The basal dose of fertilizer is applied hereafter and the field is puddled well. Puddling will result in leveling of the field and formation of two distinct layers. The surface layer is called oxidized layer (2.5 cm) and bottom reduced layer( 5-7.5 cm). The reduced layer preserves nutrient loss through volatilization and other ways. Similarly, the weed seeds finds it difficult to get enough oxygen for germination.
Kerala Agricultural University. 2011. Package of Practices Recommendations: Crops.14th edition. Kerala Agricultural University, Thrissur- 360 p.