Sowing of Seeds/ Transplanting

 

Planting methods Direct seeding and transplanting are two general methods for planting rice. The primary difference between the two methods is that in the transplanting method, seedlings are first raised in the nursery before they are planted in the main field whereas in direct seeding, the seed is sown directly in the main field either by wet or dry method.

Lower labour cost is the major advantage of direct seeding. The savings in labour may substantially reduce production cost, particularly in areas where labour cost is high. Also directly seeded rice may mature 7 to 10 days earlier than transplanted rice. This saving in time is important especially where multiple cropping pattern is used.

Direct seeding  Seed rate

Transplanting  60-85 kg/ha               

Broadcasting 80-100 kg/ha

Dibbling 80-90 kg/ha

[Note: The above seed rates are specified for farmers' field on the basis of minimum germination of 80%. ]
 

Seed treatment

Dry method: Dress seeds with the following fungicides on the previous day of sowing (12 to 16 hours ahead) at dosage given below:

1. Pyroquilon (Fongorene 50 WP) 2 g per kg of seed
2. Carbendazim (Bavistin 50 WP) 2 g per kg of seed
3. Tricyclazole (Beam 75 WP) 2 g per kg of seed

Wet Method: Soak seed for 12 to 16 hours in a solution of any of the following fungicides and drain to induce germination.

1. 0.2% Fongorene 50 WP 2 g/kg of seed/l of water
2. 0.2% Bavistin 50 WP 2 g/kg of seed/l of water

Treatment with the above fungicides either dry or wet protects the seedlings from blast disease up to 30 to 60 days after sowing.

The above seed treatment can also be recommended for giving protection from seedlings blast in endemic areas.

Soak paddy seeds in CuSO4 (0.25%) and ZnSO4 (1%) solution for 24 hours. Drain and keep for sprouting. For soaking 1 kg of seed, 1 litre of micronutrient solution would be needed
Transplanting Seedlings are ready to be pulled out when they attain the stage of 4-5 leaves, about 18 days after sowing in the case of short duration varieties and 20-25 days after sowing in the case of medium duration varieties. Under ill drained conditions, the long duration varieties like Pankaj, Jagannath and IR5 may be planted 30 days after sowing.

Seedlings more than 30 days old when transplanted in the field recover slower than younger seedlings, especially, if they suffer stem and root injury. However, during the virippu season, age of seedlings can go up to 35 days in case of medium duration varieties and 25 days for short duration varieties. If the seedlings are over aged, plant at a closer spacing with 3 or 4 seedlings per hill and apply extra dose of nitrogen @ 5 kg/ha as basal dressing.



Irrigate seedbeds a day before pulling out the seedlings to soften the soil and to facilitate washing of roots. Pull out one or a few seedlings at a time to reduce damage. Wash off mud and soil from the roots carefully and tie the seedlings into bundles of convenient size for transplanting.

Pruning of the top portion and root is not recommended as it inflicts wounds through which disease causing organisms may subsequently enter.

Transplant seedlings of appropriate age for the variety @ 2-3 seedling per hill in rows, at spacing as shown below. Leave wider row of 30 cm after every 3 m to facilitate spraying and other cultural operations. Transplant seedlings at a depth of 3-4 cm

Season

Duration

Spacing

No. of hills/m2

First crop

Medium

Short

20 cm x 15 cm

15 cm x 10 cm

33

67

Second crop

Medium

Short

20 cm x 10 cm

15 cm x 10 cm

50

67

Third crop

Medium

Short

20 cm x 10 cm

15 cm x 10 cm

50

67

Rice Growing Seasons of Kerala

Agroclimatic situations

Seasons

Period

From

To

General

Virippu (I crop / autumn)

April-May

Sept-Oct

Mundakan (II crop / winter)

Sept-Oct

Dec-Jan

Puncha (III crop / summer)

Dec-Jan

March-April

Onattukara

Virippu (I crop / autumn)

April

August

Mundakan (II crop / winter)

Aug-Sept

Dec-Jan

Kuttanad

Additional crop

May-June

Aug-Sept

Puncha

Oct-Nov

Feb-March

Kole (single cropped area)

Mundakan (Kadumkrishi)

Aug-Sept

Dec-Jan

Pokkali

Virippu (I crop / autumn)

May-June

Sept-Oct

Oorumundakan

Aug-Sept

Dec-Jan

Kaippad

Mundakan (II crop / winter)

Sept-Oct

Dec-Jan

Puncha (III crop / summer)

Dec-Jan

March-April

High ranges

Nancha

May-June

Oct-Nov

Puncha

Dec-Jan

April-May

References Kerala Agricultural University.  2011.  Package of Practices Recommendations: Crops.14th edition. Kerala Agricultural University, Thrissur- 360 p.