Management during Planting/ Sowing


  • For modan cultivation (upland crop) and direct seeded crop in wet lands, apply nitrogen in three equal split doses, first as basal dressing, second at tillering stage (three weeks after seeding) and the third at panicle initiation stage (about thirty days before flowering).
  • Apply the full dose of P2O5 at the time of land preparation as basal dressing.
  • Apply K2O either in a single dose as basal or in two split doses half as basal and half at the panicle initiation stage.

  • In general, addition of lime is absolutely necessary when the pH is lower than 5.5 and it is advisable when pH varies between 5.5 and 6.5
  • For direct seeded crops during the first season, apply lime @ 600 kg/ha in two split doses, the first dose of 350 kg/ha as basal dressing at the time of first ploughing and the second dose of 250 kg/ha as top dressing about one month after sowing.
  • For transplanted crop, apply lime @ 600 kg/ha in two split doses, 350 kg/ha as basal dressing and 250 kg/ha as top dressing about one month after transplanting.
  • A time lag of one week should be given between application of lime and fertilizers. For top dressing, lime may be applied one week prior to the application of fertilizers.
Organic manuring
  • Apply organic manure in the form of farmyard manure or compost or green leaf @ of 5 t/ha and incorporate into the soil while ploughing. The entire quantity of phosphatic fertilizers may be applied along with the organic manures.For pre-planting application, apply the fertilizers at the final ploughing. It would be better to transplant 10-15 days after incorporating organic manure.
  • Cowpea may be raised as an intercrop in dry seeded low land (semi-dry) rice by sowing 12.5 kg seed/ha along with rice to serve as a source of green manure. When the rice field gets submerged with the onset of southwest monsoon, cowpea at the age of about six weeks and at active vegetative stage decays and gets self-incorporated in the soil adding substantial quantity of green manure. Such a system of concurrent growing of cowpea also reduces weed pressure in semi-dry rice.

References Kerala Agricultural University.  2011.  Package of Practices Recommendations: Crops.14th edition. Kerala Agricultural University, Thrissur- 360 p.