Feeding Requirement for Pig

 

General guidelines

 

  • Pigs are monogastric animals and can utilize fibrous food only to a limited extent. Adult pigs can utilize fibrous food better than young stock.
  • Part of the protein in the diet of pigs should come from animal source such as fish, meat etc.
  • Pigs should be fed at regular intervals.
  • Fresh feed should be put only after removal of the previous feed from the feed trough.
  • Pig rearing based on commercial pig feed is not economical and hence feeding based on swill is recommended. On an average, pig requires 4-8 kg swill per day.
  • All categories of pigs can be given small quantity of fodder or may be sent to pasture.
  • Ad libitum feeding using an automatic feeder (which can be fabricated using 200 litre oil drum) may be practiced for weaned pigs to avoid post-weaning weight depression.

Feeding of boars

 

A breeding boar requires 2-2.5 kg concentrate per 100 kg weight depending on the age, condition and breeding demand. Feed allowances should be so adjusted that the pig is neither fatty nor run down. Greens should be provided if kept indoors. Year-round pasture is excellent if it could be provided from the stand point of providing both the needed exercise and valuable nutrients.
Feeding of female

 

The demands resulting from pregnancy and need for conserving nutrients for ensuing lactation are accelerated during the later third of pregnancy. The increased needs are for proteins, vitamins and minerals.
Mature sows gain 30-35 kg and gilts 40-45 kg during pregnancy. Feed should be so regulated that sows and gilts are never over fat or thin. Individual feeding is preferred.

Flushing is a practice of giving extra feed to sows and gilts from 1-2 weeks prior to mating and returns to normal feeding after mating.

 
Feeding of Farrowing Sow and Litter Feed lightly with bulky laxative feed immediately before and after farrowing. Bring the sow to full feeding in 10 days. Plenty of greens may be provided. Feed allowance may be calculated as 2.5-3 kg/100 kg body weight plus at the rate of 0.2 kg feed per piglet with the sow. Thus, a sow weighing 100 kg with 8 piglets should receive 4.6 kg feed per day. The piglets may be provided with special nourishing diet called creep feed separately
Creep feeding: The practice of self-feeding concentrates to young piglets in a separate enclosure away from their mother is known as creep feeding. Creep feed should be given when piglets are two weeks old. Each active and healthy piglet may consume about 10 kg feed before reaching the age of 8 weeks and two-third of this consumed between 6-8 weeks.Feeding of growing and finishing pigs

The pigs may be given complete feed they can consume to attain maximum growth. Alternatively, they may be fed a fixed quantity twice or thrice a day. Yet another method that they may be fed all the quantity they consume within a fixed time of 30-45 minutes or so.

On an average, the post-weaning feed conversion efficiency till market weight may be about 4 i.e. this much quantity of feed would be used by the pig to gain one kg of weight. However, it varies considerably with age and ambient temperature. Protein requirements are greater during early life. As fattening progresses, protein per cent in the ration may be decreased.

Composition of rations for pigs of different categories

Ingredient (Kg) Starter creep 22-24% CP upto10 kg Feed composition
    i ii iii iv i ii iii iv v vi vii
Yellow Maize 50 40 35 25 40 25 45 30 30 40 30 30
Cholam - - 15 - - - - - - - - -
Tapioca Flour - - - 15 - 25 - - - - - -
Molasses - - - - - - - - - 10 - -
Groundnut cake* 25 12 17 15 - 15 8 7 7 12 - 15
Soyabean meal - - - - 12 - - - - - 7 -
Rubber seed cake - - - - - - 10 - - - - -
Tamarind seed meal - - - - - - - - - - - 20
Wheat bran 12.5 20 10 17 20 20 20 30 32 20 32 20
Rice polish - 16 15 16 16 8 10 23 21 22 21 8
Unsalted dried fish 10 10 6 10 10 5 5 - 8 5 8 5
Carcass meal (meat cum bone meal) - - - - - - - 8.5 - - - -
Mineral mixture 2 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5
Salt 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5
DL. Methionine - - - - - 30g 30g 60g - 30g - -
Approximate daily intake of feed (Kg) 0.1 - 0.6
0.6 - 2
2 - 3

To every 100 kg feed add 20 g vitamin supplement (AB2D3) like Indomix, Vitablend, etc.
* If deoiled cake is used, to prevent deficiency of essential fatty acids, vegetable oil or tallow may be incorporated at 1 2 % level.
 

(Source: Kerala Agricultural University)
 
  Miscellaneous feeds which can be fed to pigs:

Swill (kitchen waste including left over of human food, vegetables, meat and fish cuttings): Composition and quantity vary so greatly that it is difficult to indicate feeding values. It has been observed that pigs weighing 30 kg reached a body weight of 70 kg in 70 days when fed exclusively on kitchen waste. Ensure that swill feed is not old and putrified. On an average 4 8 kg swill is needed per pig per day.

Other feeds used for feeding pig

Item Incorporation level up to (%)
Tapioca starch waste 15-20
Rubber seed cake 15
Tamarind seed roasted 20
Tea waste 20
Meat offal 20
(Source: Kerala Agricultural University)

 

References Kerala Agricultural University. 2001. Package of Practices- Recommendations: Veterinary and Animal Husbandry, Kerala Agricultural University, Trichur.