Disease Management

 

Anthrax (Gorhi)
Important symptoms Control measures
High temperature, abdominal pain, sudden death, carcass bloated,oozing of blood from natural orifices. Anthrax Spore vaccine protection
Black Quarter (Sujab)
Important symptoms Control measures
6 months-2 year old animals in good conditions are affected. Animals sometimes diies without premonitory symptoms. Fevered animals show lameness/stiffness. Affected region will show trembling and violent twitching. Crepitating swelling in hind orfore quarters. Killed vaccine
 
Haemorrhagic Septicaemia (Galghotu)
Important symptoms Control measures

High temperature, drop in milk yield, abdominal pain, diarrhoea or dysentery, rapid respiration, oedema on neck or brisket.

Ocladjuvant vaccine
 
Brucellosis (Contagious abortion)
Important symptoms Control measures
Abortion at 7-8 months of pregnancy. In chronic case abortion less common but retained placenta is seen. In bull unilateral orchitis, synovitis and hygroma of knee. Cotton strain 19 (live bacteria)
Tuberculosis
Important symptoms Control measures
Depends on the organ involved. Pulmonary infection gives rise to dry cough, which increases in pregnancy. Loss of weight. In TB mastitis milk is almost normal in the beginning and finally whey like and then milk production stops. In chronic productive type, infection is limited to one quarter, gland being enlarged and indurated, normal symmetry of udder is lost. Treatment is not resorted to usually but animals are slaughtered.
 
Para-tuberculosis
Important symptoms Control measures
Chronic diarrhoea and emaciation. Treatment not done , slaughter the sero positive animals.Vaccination is carried out only in calves less than one month of age. Vaccinated animals give +ve reaction to Johnin and Avian tuberculin.
 
Colibacillosis
White scour
In calves
 
Important symptoms Control measures
Seen in very young calf(1-3 weeks old).Scouring, weekness and prostration. In less acute case , calf is listless, fails to suck and develop diarrhoea. Swelling at joints and pneumonia in a few cases. High temperature initially, shows abdominal pain, faeces loose in consistency containing mucous and blood, weakness, fall in temperature, comatose and die Fluid therapy, antibiotic therapy depending on the result of antibiotic sensitivity test. Calf should be kept in hygienic environment.
 
Tetanus
Important symptoms Control measures
Mild stiffiness, unwillingness to move, last for 12-24 hours, anxious and alert expression, erect carriage of ears, absence of movement of eye lids, staring look, constipation. Tetanus toxoid two injections 6-8 weeks apart and booster at
6th month.
Leptospirosis
Important symptoms Control measures
high temperature, depression, diarrhoea, severe jaundice, dark coloured urine,stoppage of rumination, milk reduced or ceases ,red in colour and may contain blood clot and abortion. Start treatment before damage of liver and kidney occur. Leptospira are highly sensitive to mega dose of penicillin, streptomycin and tetracycline.
 
Foot and Mouth disease (Muhkhar)
Important symptoms Control measures
High fever, stringy salivation, smacking of lips, vesicles on the tongue, gums, dental pad, cheeks, around the muzzle, coronary band, interdigital cleft and udder Polyvalent tissue culture vaccine
 
Rinderpest (Mata)
Important symptoms Control measures
Sharp rise in temperature, frothy salivation, grayish white ulcers in the mouth, lower lip, gums, cheeks, tongue, foul smelling shooting diarrhoea. Lapinised avianised vaccine for exotic and crossbred cattle, caprinised vaccine for zebu cattle.
Mucosal disease
Important symptoms Control measures
Sharp rise in temperature, frothy salivation,  grayish white ulcers in the mouth, lower lip, gums, cheeks, tongue, foul smelling shooting diarrhoea. Live attenuated vaccine either alone or in combination with IBR and P13 available. Pregnant animals should not be vaccinated.
Vaccination not practiced in India
Infectious bovine rhinotracheitis
 
Important symptoms Control measures
Respiratory symptoms, abortions, sometimes genital infections. Vulvo-vaginitis in cows and balanoposthitis in bulls Modified live virus vaccines available; either alone or in combination with P13 and BVD. Vaccination of pregnant animals not advised.
Ephemeral fever
Important symptoms Control measures
Sudden appearance of high fever, muscular shivering, lameness, stiffiness of joints and enlargement of peripheral lymph nodes, reduction in milk yield. Antipyretics orally/parentrally.

Virus pneumonia

 

Important symptoms Control measures
Fever, nasal discharge and coughing. Vaccine available for P 13 either alone or in combination with IBR and BVD.

Cow pox

 

Important symptoms Control measures
Small red papules on teat and udder. No vaccine available. Observe strict hygienic measures-apply antiseptic ointments-Washing the udder and teat before and after each milking with antiseptic lotion.

Blue tongue

 

Important symptoms Control measures
High rise of temperature, salivation, occulonasal discharges, ulceration of the tongue, dental pad and lips. Vaccination difficult as there is over 24 serotypes of the virus and transmission  by insects.
For biting and other flies
Important symptoms Control measures
Severe itching, animal rubbing its body, biting on body etc Dichlorvos@2ml/L of water-spray on breeding places and animal sheds.
 

 Lice, fleas and ticks

 

Important symptoms Control measures
Severe itching, animal rubbing its body, biting on body etc Malthion@5-10 ml/L of water. Use as spray, wash or dip.
References Kerala Agricultural University. 2001. Package of Practices- Recommendations: Veterinary and Animal Husbandry, Kerala Agricultural University, Trichur. .