Neem seed kernel extract
Neem seed kernel extract (NSKE) is effective for a variety of leaf eating insects. Aphid, shoot and fruit borer, pod fly, leaf miner,etc. can be controlled with this.
Good quality neem seed should be collected and pounded to remove its outer seed coat. It is next immersed in water (50 gm of kernel in one litre of water). After 12 hours, the solution should be filtered through a fine cloth.
Dissolve 5 gram of soap in 50 ml of boiled water and add to the above solution. Instead of bar soap one packet of shampoo sachet can also be used. Now the 5 per cent NSKE is ready for spraying.
The extract can be stored for a month. The seeds used for preparing the extract should be at least three months old. When they are less than three months old or more than eight months old, their azadirachtin content will be less and the extract would be less potent and effective. The extract prepared should be milky white in colour. If it is prepared from aged seeds, the extract will be brownish in colour.